The 4 Lithium ion Chemistries And Their Features For BatteryLithiumBattery
The 4 Lithium ion Chemistries And Their Features For Battery
As a new entrant on the block, lithium-ion gets thrown around as a general term for every kind of lithium ion battery.
That’s not the case!
Battery manufacturers have tweaked the traditional lithium-ion chemistry, to introduce over a dozen chemical compositions that have helped increase the range of applications.
If you’ve not heard of them yet, this article discusses 4 of the common lithium-ion battery chemistries and their features.
Lithium Cobalt Oxide
Also called lithium cobaltate, this battery chemistry makes use of lithium carbonate and cobalt as the primary energy conducting materials. They feature a carbon graphite anode and a cobalt oxide cathode.
A high energy density is the standout feature of lithium cobalt oxide batteries. Higher energy densities guarantee a longer run time. This feature makes it an ideal option for mobile devices such as laptops, cellphones, tablets and cameras.
This lithium-ion chemistry has its downsides too, including a short shelf life, and the need for frequent recharging owing to smaller load capabilities. Safety could also be an issue at extremely hot and cold temperatures.
Lithium Iron Phosphate
LFP batteries, as they are also called, Lithium iron phosphate chemistries use LiFePO4 as the cathode material and a graphite electrode.
Lithium iron phosphate batteries offer by far the best advantages, compared to lead acid counterparts as well as other lithium-ion chemistries. You get an average of 5000 cycles without the need for active maintenance or a dip in performance. they pack power in a compact, lightweight battery, that is almost half the weight and size of a lead acid battery. Quick recharge cycles reduce operational downtime while an integrated BMS ensures reliability and safety.
The major drawback, however, of a lithium iron phosphate battery is its cost. It is the most expensive on the shelf. Lithium iron phosphate batteries are the go to option for electric vehicles such as motorcycles, golf carts and RVs.
Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide
These batteries combine Nickel, Manganese and Cobalt as the material for the cathode. The percentage of each element varies according to the manufacturer.
Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt batteries either offer high energy density or high power density. Manganese ensures low internal resistance. Nickel boosts high-specific energy but reduces overall stability. Given the fast discharge and charge rate, these chemistries are designed to handle heavier machines such as forklifts, RVs and cordless power tools.
A low thermal runaway temperature is one of the downsides of lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide batteries. It comprises the safety of the batteries when compared to LFPs.
Lithium Manganese Oxide
If you are looking for a battery that performs well under high temperatures, the Lithium Manganese chemistry is a good contender.
The first cell cathode made using lithium manganese oxide dates back to 1996. The three dimensional spinel structure improves current handling and ensures lower internal resistance.
Compared to all lithium-ion chemistries, lithium manganese oxides are the safest. Hence, they find application in medical equipment and tools. They are also fitted in laptops, electric bikes and power tools. They are also known for their high current discharging and charging rates.
Knowing which of the lithium-ion chemistries to choose involves factoring in several parameters such as energy requirements, maintenance, current discharge handling and charging, safety and cost. You might also want to match your battery to the application.